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家庭光伏分布式發電站,離網并網區別,是否需要鋰電池?

文章分類:技術問答人氣(qi):5,602 次(ci)訪問發(fa)表時間:2016-06-29

萊科斯今天給大家科普一下,自己家里安裝太陽能光(guang)伏發電站的話,是(shi)并網(wang)還是(shi)離(li)網(wang),需不需要蓄電池?

簡單(dan)的(de)來說,離網(wang)光伏(fu)(fu) 電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)站是把太陽能(neng)(neng)發電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)儲(chu)存到蓄電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi),然后通過逆變器(qi)轉(zhuan)換成(cheng)家(jia)(jia)用(yong)(yong)的(de)220V電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓。并(bing)網(wang)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)站從名字也能(neng)(neng)大概理解,它(ta)指的(de)是和(he)市(shi)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)連接在一(yi)起,并(bing)網(wang)光伏(fu)(fu)發電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)站沒有(you)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)能(neng)(neng)儲(chu)存裝(zhuang)置,直接通過逆變器(qi)轉(zhuan)換成(cheng)國家(jia)(jia)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)網(wang)需(xu)要的(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓要求,并(bing)優(you)先(xian)供家(jia)(jia)庭使用(yong)(yong),家(jia)(jia)庭用(yong)(yong)不完的(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)可(ke)以(yi)賣給國家(jia)(jia)。目前國家(jia)(jia)政策支持(chi),正在大力扶持(chi)太陽能(neng)(neng)光伏(fu)(fu)發電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),家(jia)(jia)庭光伏(fu)(fu)發電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)站只(zhi)要發電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),都會(hui)(hui)有(you)國家(jia)(jia)補貼。不過并(bing)網(wang)的(de)話(hua)要先(xian)跟當地(di)國家(jia)(jia)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)網(wang)部門申請(qing),安裝(zhuang)前也別忘了使用(yong)(yong)萊科(ke)斯的(de)EL檢(jian)測(ce)儀(yi)檢(jian)測(ce)是否有(you)隱(yin)裂(lie),隱(yin)裂(lie)可(ke)是會(hui)(hui)極(ji)大的(de)影響(xiang)發電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)效(xiao)率與(yu)使用(yong)(yong)壽命的(de)。

第一、并網光伏發電站

并網(wang),就是(shi)(shi)必(bi)須連接到(dao)公(gong)共(gong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)網(wang),就是(shi)(shi)太(tai)陽(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)發(fa)電(dian)(dian)(dian)、家(jia)庭電(dian)(dian)(dian)網(wang)、公(gong)共(gong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)網(wang)聯系在一起了,這是(shi)(shi)必(bi)須依賴現有電(dian)(dian)(dian)網(wang)才能(neng)(neng)運行的(de)(de)發(fa)電(dian)(dian)(dian)系統。主要由太(tai)陽(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)板和逆變器(qi)(qi)組(zu)成,太(tai)陽(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)電(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)板發(fa)出直接經(jing)逆變器(qi)(qi)轉換(huan)成220V交流電(dian)(dian)(dian)并給(gei)家(jia)用電(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)供電(dian)(dian)(dian),當(dang)(dang)太(tai)陽(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)的(de)(de)發(fa)電(dian)(dian)(dian)量超過(guo)家(jia)用電(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)使用的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)量時,多(duo)余的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)(dian)就輸送到(dao)了公(gong)共(gong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)網(wang);而(er)當(dang)(dang)太(tai)陽(yang)(yang)能(neng)(neng)的(de)(de)發(fa)電(dian)(dian)(dian)量不能(neng)(neng)滿(man)足家(jia)用電(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)(qi)使用時,就自動從電(dian)(dian)(dian)網(wang)中(zhong)補充。而(er)這整個過(guo)程都是(shi)(shi)智能(neng)(neng)控制的(de)(de),不需要人工(gong)操作。

由于這種光伏(fu)發電(dian)(dian)系統不需要使(shi)用(yong)(yong)蓄電(dian)(dian)池,也就大大節省了成本。特別(bie)是國家(jia)已經發布的(de)(de)(de)并(bing)網新政策已經明確表(biao)示,家(jia)庭(ting)光伏(fu)電(dian)(dian)站(zhan)可(ke)(ke)以(yi)(yi)免(mian)費入網,多余的(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)還(huan)可(ke)(ke)以(yi)(yi)賣給電(dian)(dian)力公司。從投(tou)資的(de)(de)(de)長遠角度,按家(jia)庭(ting)光伏(fu)電(dian)(dian)站(zhan)25年的(de)(de)(de)使(shi)用(yong)(yong)壽命計算(suan),6-10年左右可(ke)(ke)以(yi)(yi)回收成本,剩下(xia)的(de)(de)(de)十幾(ji)年就是賺到(dao)的(de)(de)(de)。因(yin)此,如果想節省電(dian)(dian)費開支且電(dian)(dian)力供應方便的(de)(de)(de)話,就選(xuan)擇并(bing)網太陽能發電(dian)(dian)系統,這也是目前主(zhu)流的(de)(de)(de)方式(shi)。

但(dan)(dan)是,并網(wang)也有(you)其缺點,就是當公(gong)共(gong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)網(wang)斷電(dian)(dian)(dian)時,光(guang)伏發電(dian)(dian)(dian)也不(bu)能(neng)(neng)運行。但(dan)(dan)是如(ru)果把其中的并網(wang)逆(ni)(ni)變器(qi)換成智能(neng)(neng)微網(wang)逆(ni)(ni)變器(qi)(并網(wang)與離網(wang)混(hun)合逆(ni)(ni)變器(qi)),電(dian)(dian)(dian)站(zhan)就可(ke)以(yi)正常運轉。

那么,怎么才(cai)可(ke)以將(jiang)白(bai)天發(fa)的(de)電(dian)力儲存起(qi)來(lai)晚(wan)上用嗎?這需要(yao)添加控(kong)制(zhi)器(qi)和蓄(xu)電(dian)池(chi)等,白(bai)天控(kong)制(zhi)器(qi)將(jiang)光伏所發(fa)的(de)電(dian)力儲存在蓄(xu)電(dian)池(chi)中,晚(wan)上控(kong)制(zhi)器(qi)將(jiang)蓄(xu)電(dian)池(chi)所儲電(dian)力釋放出來(lai)供照明使用。

第二、

這也被叫做獨立光(guang)(guang)伏發電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)站(zhan),是不依賴(lai)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)網而獨立運(yun)行的發電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)系統(tong),主要有(you)太陽能(neng)(neng)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)板(ban)、儲(chu)能(neng)(neng)蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)、充(chong)放電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)控制器(qi)、逆變器(qi)等(deng)部件組成(cheng)。太陽能(neng)(neng)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)板(ban)發出的電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)直(zhi)接流入蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)并儲(chu)存起來,需要給電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)供電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)時,蓄(xu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)里的直(zhi)流電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流經(jing)逆變器(qi)并轉換成(cheng)220V的交流電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),這是一個重復循環的充(chong)放電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)過程。這種發電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)系統(tong)由于(yu)不受地域的限(xian)制,使用很廣泛,只(zhi)要有(you)陽光(guang)(guang)照射(she)的地方就可以(yi)安裝使用,因此非常適合(he)于(yu)偏(pian)遠(yuan)無(wu)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)網地區(qu)、孤島、漁船、戶外養(yang)殖基地等(deng),也可以(yi)做為經(jing)常停電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)地區(qu)的應急發電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)設備(bei)。

這(zhe)種系(xi)(xi)統由于必須(xu)配備蓄電(dian)池,且占據了(le)發電(dian)系(xi)(xi)統30-50%的(de)成本。而且蓄電(dian)池的(de)使(shi)用(yong)壽命一般(ban)都在3-5年,過后(hou)又得更(geng)換,這(zhe)更(geng)是增加了(le)使(shi)用(yong)成本。而經濟性來說,很難(nan)得到大范圍的(de)推廣使(shi)用(yong),因此不適合(he)用(yong)電(dian)方便(bian)的(de)地方使(shi)用(yong)。

但(dan)對于無電(dian)(dian)網地(di)區(qu)或(huo)經常(chang)停(ting)電(dian)(dian)地(di)區(qu)家庭來說,又(you)具有很強的實(shi)用(yong)性。特別是單純為(wei)了(le)解決停(ting)電(dian)(dian)時的照明問題,可以(yi)采用(yong)直(zhi)流(liu)節能燈,非常(chang)實(shi)用(yong)。因此,離(li)網發電(dian)(dian)系統是專門(men)針對無電(dian)(dian)網地(di)區(qu)或(huo)經常(chang)停(ting)電(dian)(dian)地(di)區(qu)場所使用(yong)的。

簡單(dan)的說:并網不(bu)需(xu)要(yao)蓄電池(chi),離網要(yao)蓄電池(chi)。

萊科斯致力于光(guang)伏檢(jian)測(ce)設備(bei)的研發生(sheng)產(chan)與銷售(shou),包括的太(tai)陽(yang)(yang)能電池片EL檢(jian)測(ce)儀(yi)(yi),太(tai)陽(yang)(yang)能組件(jian)EL檢(jian)測(ce)儀(yi)(yi),光(guang)伏電站組件(jian)現場檢(jian)測(ce)用的便(bian)攜式EL檢(jian)測(ce)儀(yi)(yi),可以更(geng)好(hao)的包括質量,確保組件(jian)使用壽命!